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Enhancing Sport Performance


Researchers in this theme deliver research and consultancy to athletes, coaches, officials, sporting organisations and schools aimed at enhancing the performance, development and well-being of coaches, athletes and teachers. Our research is multi-disciplinary with expertise in sport psychology, exercise physiology, sports biomechanics, strength and conditioning, physiotherapy and skill acquisition. 

Please click on the project titles below to find out more about our research.

For enquiries concerned with Sporting Performance Research please contact Professor Iain Greenlees.

For more information on our range of consultancy services, please visit our Sports Performance and Rehabilitation Unit page.

Personality & Performance


The extent to which personality variables may influence sporting performance and the sporting experience is a question that has taxed sport psychologists and sporting observers for years. At the University of Chichester, we are interested in the extent to which stable personality traits may influence a performers journey through sport and the extent to which they meet their potential.

We are interested in the relationship between a range of personality variables, including the Big 5 traits of openness, conscientiousness, agreeableness, extraversion and neuroticism (e.g., Allen et al., 2010), mental toughness (e.g.,Birch et al., 2017) and more specific traits such as reward and punishment sensitivity. Predominantly we focus on the impact of personality on sporting performance and talent development but researchers are also exploring the role of personality in occupations such as life-guarding and in other performance domains such as e-sports.

Interested in finding out more about this research area or getting involved in our research projects? Please email Iain Greenlees (

Key Publications

Allen, M.S., Greenlees, I.A., & Jones, M.V. (2013).  Personality in sport: a comprehensive review.  International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 6, 184-208.

Allen, M.S., Greenlees, I., & Jones, M. (2014). Personality, counterfactual thinking and negative emotional reactivity. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 15, 147-154.

Allen, M.S., Greenlees, I., & Jones, M. (2011). An investigation into the five factor model of personality and coping behaviour in sport. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29, 841-850.

Birch, P., Crampton, S., Greenlees, I., Lowry, R., & Coffee, P. (2017). The Mental Toughness Questionnaire-48: A Re-examination of Factorial Validity.  International Journal of Sport Psychology, 48, 331-355.

Thelwell, R.C., Lane, A.M., Weston, N.J.V., & Greenlees, I.A. (2008). Examining relationships between emotional intelligence and coaching efficacy. International Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology. 6, 224-235.

Thomas, S., Reeves, C., Agombar, J., & Greenlees, I. (2013). Personality hardiness at difference levels of competitive motorcycling. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 116, 315-321.

Key Staff

Strength and Conditioning


To effectively develop athlete strength and conditioning programmes, strength and conditioning practitioners should inform their resistance exercise selection based on their suitability. Additionally, it is critical to establish appropriate and accessible methods to effectively monitor the effects of strength and conditioning programmes, whether the athlete should return to play/competition, and the athlete’s readiness to train. Both these areas can be effectively explored by quantifying the mechanical demands of resistance exercises and common athletic tasks with biomechanical techniques, like measuring force-time data using force plate measurement systems.

We have spent the last 15 years using force-time data to quantify the mechanical demands of different resistance exercises (e.g. Lake et al., 2017) and common athletic tasks (e.g. Lake and McMahon, 2018; McMahon et al., 2018b). Additionally, we have also been interested in 1) developing standardised methods to robustly process force-time data (McMahon et al., 2018, and 2) establishing the suitability of using new technology to quantify the mechanical demand of resistance exercise and common athletic tasks (e.g. Mundy et al., 2016; Lake et al., 2018; Lake et al., 2019).

We have also researched characteristics of effective strength and conditioning coaches and explored the impact of different coaching/leadership styles on the recipients of strength and conditioning coaching.

Interested in finding out more about this research area or getting involved in our research projects? Please email Jason Lake (

Key Publications

Lake, J., Augustus, A., Austin, K., Comfort, P., McMahon, J.J., Mundy, P., and Haff, G.G. (2019). The reliability and validity of the bar-mounted PUSH BandTM 2.0 during bench press with moderate and heavy loads. Journal of Sports Sciences, 37(23), 2685-2690.

Lake, J., and McMahon, J.J. (2018). Within-subject consistency of unimodal and bimodal force application during the countermovement jump. Sports, 6(4), 143-150.

McMahon, J. J., Comfort, P., Lake, J., Suchomel, T. J. (2018). Understanding the key phases of the countermovement jump force-time curve. Strength and Conditioning Journal, 40(4), 96-106.

McMahon, J. J., Jones, P., Suchomel, T. J., Lake, J., and Comfort, P. (2018b). Influence of reactive strength index modified on force- and power-time curves. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 13(2), 220-227.

Lake, J., Duncan, F., Jackson, M., and Naworynsky, D. (2017). Effect of a hexagonal barbell on the mechanical demand of deadlift performance. Sports), 5(82), 1-8.

Mundy, P. D., Lake, J. P., Carden, P. J. C., Smith, N. A., and Lauder, M. A. (2016). Agreement between the force platform method and the combined method measurements of power output during the loaded countermovement jump. Sports Biomechanics, 15(1), 23-35.

Szedlak, C., Smith, M.J., Day, M.C., & Greenlees, I.A. (2015). Effective behaviours of strength and conditioning coaches as perceived by athletes. International Journal of Sport Science and Coaching, 10 (5), 967-984.

Key Staff

Dr Jason Lake

Professor Mike Lauder

Professor Steve Myers

Dr Neal Smith