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Dr Sam Blacker

Reader in Exercise Physiology & Nutrition

s.blacker@chi.ac.uk | +44 (0) 1243 793473

Sam is a Reader in Exercise Physiology & Nutrition in the Department of Sport and Exercise Sciences and co-leads the Occupational Performance Research Group with his colleague Dr Steve Myers.

He joined the University of Chichester in 2013 after having spent the majority of the previous 12 years working for Optimal Performance Limited, a company specialising in delivering research and consultancy to enhance performance, improve health and reduce injury in physically demanding occupations. He has acted as the principal investigator for numerous research projects based in the United Kingdom and overseas, including for organisations such the Ministry of Defence, Department of Health, UK Fire and Rescue Service, UK Police Force, Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI), Defence Sciences and Technology Laboratory (DSTL) and the United Arab Emirates and Malaysian Armed Forces.

Sam is the module co-ordinator for Nutritional Strategies for Sport Performance and Nutritional Aspects in Health and Disease modules. He supervises undergraduate and postgraduate research projects and is currently supervising six PhD students. Sam has active research collaborations with colleagues at other Universities, Industry and National Governing Bodies in the UK and overseas and coordinates a number of large research projects funded by UK Ministry of Defence and UK Emergency Services being delivered by the Occupational Performance Research Group.

He is a British Association of Sports and Exercise Sciences (BASES) Accredited Sports and Exercise Scientist, holds Chartered Scientist (CSci) status and is the BASES Laboratory Director for the University of Chichester Sport & Exercise Science Laboratories.

Professional

Education

1999 – 2003 B.Sc. (First Class Hons) (Sandwich) Biological Sciences, University of Brighton

2006 – 2009 Ph.D. Exercise Physiology ‘Physiological Responses to Load Carriage by Backpack, University of Chichester

Teaching

SPL338 Nutritional Strategies for Sport Performance (Module Co-ordinator)

This module aims to explore the relationship between nutrient intake and storage, energy metabolism and exercise performance. Application of issues of sports nutrition for the ‘generic’ athlete will be extended to specific nutrition strategies for selected sport performance. The module content is delivered through lectures and practical classes, including a practical project exploring the effects of ergogenic aids on exercise performance.

SPL233 Nutritional Aspects in Health and Disease (Module Co-ordinator)

This module aims to explore the relationship between nutrition and health status before considering some nutritional and exercise strategies that may aid in the prevention or management of these diseases. Consideration will be made of application to ‘special’ populations. The module content is delivered through weekly lectures and practical classes.

SPL232 Physiological Aspects of Physical Activity & Health

This module aims to develop an awareness of methods utilised for assessment of health status as well as a theoretical and practical evaluation of common strategies implemented within the health industry. The module content is delivered through weekly lectures and practical classes.

SPL339 Training Strategies for Sports Performance

An understanding of training principles is essential when examining participation and performance in sport and exercise. This module aims to develop knowledge of the nature of physiological adaptation in response to exercise training, whilst addressing the concepts of overload, specificity, progression and reversibility. Athletic training will be discussed within theoretical and practical contexts.

Publications

Publications

Academic Journal Papers:

2016

Willems, M.E.T., Cousins, L., Williams, D. Blacker, S.D. (2016) Beneficial Effects of New Zealand Blackcurrant Extract on Maximal Sprint Speed during the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test. Sports, 4 (3). 

Faghy, M., Blacker, S.D., Brown, P.I. (2016) Effects of load mass carried in a backpack upon respiratory muscle fatigue. European Journal of Sport Science, 16 (8). pp. 1032-1038.

Blacker, S.D., Rayson, M.P. Wilkinson, D.M., Carter, J.C., Nevill, A. Richmond, V.L. (2016) Development of Physical Selection and Criterion Performance Tests for UK Fire and Rescue Service Personnel. Occupational Medicine, 66(1): 38-45

2015

Perkins, I.C., Vine, S.A., Blacker, S.D., Willems, M.E.T (2015). New Zealand Blackcurrant Extract Improves High-intensity Intermittent Running. International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism, 25(5): 487-93.

Cook, M.D., Myers, S.D., Blacker, S.D., Willems, M.E.T. New Zealand Blackcurrant Extract Improves Cycling Performance and Fat Oxidation in Cyclists. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 115(11): 2357-65. 

2014

Blacker, S.D., Wilkinson, D.M., Rayson, M.P., Richmond, V.L., (2014). The gender-neutral timed obstacle course: a valid test of police fitness? (Letter to the Editor). Occupational Medicine (London) 64: 391.

Wilkinson, D.M., Blacker, S.D., Richmond, V.L., Rayson, M.P., Bilzon, J.L. (2014). Relationship between the 2.4-km run and multistage shuttle run test performance in military personnel. Military Medicine, 179(2), 203-207.

2013

Blacker S.D., Fallowfield J.L., Willems M.E. (2013). Intra- and interday reliability of voluntary and electrically stimulated isometric contractions of the quadriceps femoris. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology 23(4): 886-91

Horner F.E., Bilzon J.L., Rayson M.P., Blacker S.D., Richmond V.L., Carter J.M., Wright A., Nevill A. (2013). Development of an accelerometer-based multivariate model to predict free-living energy expenditure in a large military cohort. Journal of Sports Sciences. Journal of Sports Sciences. 31(4): 354-60.

Blacker S.D., Carter J.M., Wilkinson D.M., Richmond V.L., Rayson M.P., Peattie M. (2013). Physiological responses of Police Officers during job simulations wearing chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear personal protective equipment. Ergonomics. 56(1): 137-47.

Blacker S.D., Fallowfield .J.L. Bilzon J.L.J. Willems M.E. (2013) Neuromuscular impairment following backpack load carriage. Journal of Human Kinetics, 5 (37), 91-8

Richmond, V. L., Wilkinson, D. M., Blacker, S. D., Horner, F. E., Carter, J., Havenith, G. (2013). Insulated skin temperature as a measure of core body temperature for individuals wearing CBRN protective clothing. Physiological Measurement, 34(11), 1531-1543.

2012

Carter J.M., Loney T., Blacker S.D., Nicholson G.F. and Wilkinson D.M. (2012) Hydration status of Arabic adolescents and young men: measurement, evaluation, and a school-based initiative to improve drinking behaviour. International Journal of Sports Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism. 22(4): 257-66.

Fallowfield J. L., Blacker S.D., Willems M.E., Davey T., Layden J. (2012) Neuromuscular and cardiovascular responses of Royal Marine recruits to load carriage in the field. Applied Ergonomics. 43(6): 1131-7.

2011

Blacker S.D., Horner FL, Brown PI, Linnane D.M., Wilkinson D.M., Wright A, Bluck LJ, Rayson M.P. (2011). Health, Fitness and Responses to Military Training of Officer Cadets in a Gulf Cooperation Council Country. Military Medicine. 176(12): 1376-1381.

Wilkinson D.M., Blacker S.D., Richmond V.L., Horner F.E., Rayson M.P., Spiess A., Knapik J. J. (2011). Injuries and injury risk factors among British Army infantry soldiers. Injury Prevention. 17(6): 381-7.

Blacker S.D., Williams N.C., Fallowfield .J.L., Willems M.E. (2011). The effect of a carbohydrate beverage on the physiological responses during prolonged load carriage. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 111(8): 1901-8.

2010

Brown P.I., McLellan T.M., Linnane D.M., Wilkinson D.M., Richmond V.L. Horner F.E., Blacker S.D., Rayson M.P. (2010). Influence of hydration volume and ambient temperature on physiological responses while wearing CBRN protective clothing. Ergonomics. 53(12): 1484-1499.

Blacker S.D., Fallowfield J.L., Bilzon J.L.J., Willems M.E. (2010). Neuromuscular function following prolonged load carriage on level and downhill gradients. Aviation Space Environmental Medicine. 81(8): 745-753

Blacker S.D., Williams N.C., Fallowfield .J.L., Bilzon .J.L.J., Willems M.E. (2010). Carbohydrate vs protein supplementation for recovery of neuromuscular function following prolonged load carriage. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 12(7:2).

Blacker S.D., Fallowfield J.L., Bilzon J.L.J., Willems M.E. (2010). Within-day and between-days reproducibility of isokinetic parameters of knee, trunk and shoulder movements. Isokinetics and Exercise Science. 18: 45-55.

2009

Blacker S.D., Fallowfield J.L., Bilzon J.L.J., Willems M.E. (2009). Physiological responses to load carriage during level and downhill treadmill walking. Medicina Sportiva. 13(2): 108-124.

Blacker S.D., Wilkinson D.M., Rayson M.P. (2009). Gender differences in the physical demands of British Army recruit training. Military Medicine. 174(8): 811-816.

2008

Richmond V.L., Rayson M.P., Wilkinson D.M., Carter J.M., Blacker S.D. (2008). Physical demands of firefighter search and rescue in ambient environmental conditions. Ergonomics. 51(7): 1023-1031.

Richmond V.L., Rayson M.P., Wilkinson D.M., Carter J.M., Blacker S.D., Nevill A., Ross J.D., Moore S. (2008). Development of an operational fitness test for the Royal Air Force. Ergonomics. 51(6): 935-946.

Blacker S.D., Wilkinson D.M., Bilzon J.L.J., Rayson M.P. (2008) Risk factors for training injuries among British Army recruits. Military Medicine. 173(3): 278-286.

Wilkinson D.M., Carter J.M., Richmond V.L., Blacker S.D., Rayson M.P. (2008). The effect of cool water ingestion on gastrointestinal pill temperature. Medicine and Science in Sports Exercise. 40(3): 523-528.

Carter J.M., Wilkinson D.M., Blacker S.D., Rayson M.P., Bilzon J.L.J, Izard R.M., Coward A, Wright A., Nevill A., Rennie K., McCaffrey T. and Livingston B. (2008). An investigation of a novel three dimensional accelerometer to predict free-living energy expenditure. Journal of Sports Sciences. 26(6): 553-561.

Conference Proceedings:

2016

Myers, S.D. McGuire, S.J. Blacker, S.D. Wilkinson, D.M. (2016). Simulated Military Dismounted Assault Task: Metabolic demands and Relationship to Field Expedient Physical Tests. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 48(5S):482-483. Presented at the 63rd Annual meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Boston, USA.

Blacker, S.D., West, A.T., Cordell, N., Wilkinson, D. M. (2016) Development of an Aerobic Fitness Standard for Telecommunication Mast Climbers. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 48(5S):482-483. Presented at the 63rd Annual meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Boston, USA. 

2015

Blacker S.D. and Sampson, A. Montmorency tart cherry extract supplementation with no pre-exercise loading phase has no effect on recovery of muscle function or soreness following downhill running. Journal of Sports Sciences, 33(S1), S32. Presented at the British Association of Sports and Exercise Sciences Conference December 2015, Burton-Upon-Trent, UK.

Willems, M.E.T., Cousins L, Williams D, Blacker, S.D., (2015) Beneficial effect of New Zealand blackcurrant on maximal sprint speeds during the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test. International Journal of Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 26, S7, 2015. Presented at the International Society of Sports and Exercise Nutrition Conference, December 2015, Newcastle, UK.

Perkins I, Vine S, Blacker S. D., Willems M. (2015) New Zealand blackcurrant extract improves high-intensity intermittent running performance. Journal of Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 25, S7, 2015.Presented at the International Society of Sports and Exercise Nutrition Conference, December 2015, Newcastle, UK.

Blacker S.D., Myers S.D., West A.T., Wilkinson D.M. (2015) A Comparison of Performance on Incremental Shuttle Running Tests With and Without Carrying a 15 kg Load and their Relationships with Load Carriage Performance. Presented at the Second International Conference on Physical Employment Standards, August 2015, Canmore, Alberta, Canada.

2014

Blacker S.D., Dunne A, Shiu J, Wilkinson D. M. (2014) A Comparison of Participant and Researcher led Data Entry of Food Diaries for Dietary Analysis. Presented at the International Society of Sports and Exercise Nutrition Conference, December 2014, Newcastle, UK.

Perkins, I.C., Vine, S.A., Blacker, S.D., Willems, M.E.T. (2014) New Zealand Blackcurrant Extract Improves High-intensity Intermittent Running. A Comparison of Participant and Researcher led Data Entry of Food Diaries for Dietary Analysis. Presented at the International Society of Sports and Exercise Nutrition Conference, December 2014, Newcastle, UK.

Cook, M.D., Myers, S.D., Blacker, S.D., Willems, M.E.T. (2014) Effect of New Zealand blackcurrant extract on cycling performance across quartile distances and the final km of a 16.1 km time-trial. Presented at the International Society of Sports and Exercise Nutrition Conference, December 2014, Newcastle, UK.

Willems M.E.T., Myers S.D., Blacker S.D. Cook, M.D. (2014) CurraNZ blackcurrant improves cycling performance and recovery in trained endurance athletes. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 11 (Suppl 1), P14). Presented at the Annual International Society of Sports Nutrition Conference and Expo, June 2014, Clearwater Beach, FL, USA.

2012

Rayson M.P., Wilkinson D.M., Blacker S.D., Richmond V.L., Horner F.E. (2012). Optimizing the Selection and Training of Military Personnel: The U.K. Military experience. Presented at the Third International Committee of Military Medicine (ICMM) pan-Arab Regional Working Group (RWG) Congress on Military Medicine 2012, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

Rayson M.P., Wilkinson D.M., Blacker S.D., Richmond V.L., Horner F.E. (2012). Prevention of Heat Illness. Presented at the Third International Committee of Military Medicine (ICMM) pan-Arab Regional Working Group (RWG) Congress on Military Medicine 2012, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

Blacker S.D., Richmond V.L., Wilkinson D.M., Carter J.M. and Rayson M.P.: Development of gender-free role-related physical tests for the British military and United Kingdom emergency services.  In: Taylor, N.A.S., and Billing, D.C. (Editors). Physiological and physical employment standards I. Proceedings of the First Australian Conference on Physiological and Physical Employment Standards. November 27th-28th, 2012. Canberra, Australia. ISBN: 978-1-74128-220-7 Pp. 75.

Blacker S.D., Wilkinson D.M. and Rayson M.P.: Developing, implementing and refining physical selection standards for the British Army. In: Taylor, N.A.S., and Billing, D.C. (Editors). Physiological and physical employment standards I. Proceedings of the First Australian Conference on Physiological and Physical Employment Standards. November 27th-28th, 2012. Canberra, Australia. ISBN: 978-1-74128-220-7 Pp. 96.

Blacker S.D., Wilkinson D.M. and Rayson M.P.: Development of a gender-free role-related physical strength test for British Army applicants.  In: Taylor, N.A.S., and Billing, D.C. (Editors). Physiological and physical employment standards I. Proceedings of the First Australian Conference on Physiological and Physical Employment Standards. November 27th-28th, 2012. Canberra, Australia. ISBN: 978-1-74128-220-7 Pp. 98.

Blacker S.D., Horner F.E., Wilkinson D.M., Linnane D.M., Brown PI, Rayson M.P. (2012). Improving estimation of energy expenditure with accelerometers during military training using a field-based calibration procedure. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 44(5), S174. Presented at the American College of Sports Medicine Conference 2012, San Francisco, USA.

2011

Blacker S.D. (2011). Dietary supplements for the recovery of muscle function following military type physical activity. Presented at the UK Sports and Exercise Medicine Conference 2011, London, UK.

Blacker S.D., Carter J.M., Wilkinson D.M., Richmond V.L., Rayson M.P., Peattie M. (2011). Physiological Assessment of Police Officers whilst Working in CBRN PPE. Presented at the XIVth International CBRN Symposium, Shrivenham, UK.

Horner F.E., Bilzon J. L.J, Rayson M.P., Blacker S.D., Richmond V.L., Wilkinson D.M., Carter J.M., Wright A and Nevill AM (2011). Validity of the 3DNXTM Accelerometer to Predict Free-Living Human Energy Expenditure in Military Populations: A Meta-Analysis. Presented to the 2nd International Congress on Soldier’s Physical Performance, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.

2010

Carter J, Richmond V, Rayson M, Blacker S (2010). Prediction of performance on RAF operational fitness tests from gym-based fitness tests. Presented at the 2nd International Congress of Pan-Arab Regional Group of Military Medicine 2010. Jeddah, Saudi Arabia (Book of Abstracts, p60).

Carter J, Blacker S, Wilkinson D, Bilzon J, Rayson M (2010). Risk factors for the development of training injuries during British Army initial training. Presented at the 2nd International Congress of Pan-Arab Regional Group of Military Medicine 2010. Jeddah, Saudi Arabia (Book of Abstracts, p156).

Blacker S.D., Brown P.I., Pearson E., Horner, F.E., Wilkinson D.M., Rayson M.P. (2010). Differences in cardiovascular strain during Basic Military Training between individuals of varying aerobic fitness. Presented at the BASES Annual Conference 2010, Glasgow, UK.

Brown P.I., Blacker S.D., Pearson E., Horner, F.E., Wilkinson D.M., Rayson M.P. (2010). Hydration status during basic military training in officer cadets from the Gulf States. Presented at the BASES Annual Conference 2010, Glasgow, UK.

Willems M.E., Fallowfield J.L., Blacker S.D., (2010). Neuromuscular  responses after prolonged backpack carriage on level and downhill gradients. Presented at the ECSS Annual Conference 2010, Antalya, Turkey.

Blacker S.D., Fallowfield J.L., Bilzon J.L.J., Willems M.E. (2010). Physiological determinants of neuromuscular impairment following prolonged load carriage. Medicine and Science in Sports Exercise, 42(5), S123. Presented at the American College of Sports Medicine Conference 2010, Baltimore, USA.

Wilkinson D.M., Blacker S.D., Richmond V.L., Horner F.E., Rayson M.P., Spiess A., Knapik J.J. (2010). Injuries and injury risk factors in British Army infantry soldiers. Medicine and Science in Sports Exercise, 42(5), S200. Presented at the American College of Sports Medicine Conference 2010, Baltimore, USA.

Brown P.E.H., Fallowfield J.L., Blacker S.D., Wilkinson D.M., Izard R.M., Bilzon J.L.J. (2010). Physical and physiological responses to a modified British Army infantry physical training programme. Medicine and Science in Sports Exercise, 42(5), S122. Presented at the American College of Sports Medicine Conference 2010, Baltimore, USA.

Brown P.I., McLellan, T.M., Linnane, D.M., Wilkinson D.M., Richmond, V.L. Horner, F.E., Blacker S.D., Rayson M.P. (2010). Influence of hydration volume and ambient temperature on physiological responses in personal protective clothing. Medicine and Science in Sports Exercise, 42(5), S565. Presented at the American College of Sports Medicine Conference 2010, Baltimore, USA.

2009

Blacker S.D., Fallowfield J.L., Bilzon J.L.J., Willems M.E. (2009). Whey protein supplementation improves time course of recovery of muscle function following prolonged load carriage, Journal of Sports Sciences, 27(S2), S130. Presented at the BASES Annual Conference 2009, Leeds, UK.

2008

Blacker S.D., Fallowfield J.L., Bilzon J.L.J., Willems M.E. (2008). Physiological responses to prolonged load carriage during level and downhill treadmill walking, Journal of Sports Sciences, 26 (S2). Presented at the BASES Annual Conference 2008, London, UK.

Wilkinson D.M., Rayson M.P., Carter J.M., Blacker S.D. (2008). Development of an aerobic fitness entry standard for British Territorial Army recruits. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 40(5), S238. Presented at the American College of Sports Medicine Conference 2008, Indianapolis, USA.

Industry Technical Reports (Delivered through the University of Chichester)

2016

Blacker, S. D., Myers, S. D., Nevola, V. R., Rayson, M., Walker, E., Coakley, S., Hale, B., Cordell, N. J., Knapik, J., Gebhardt, D. L., Billings, A., McDevitt, C., and Monkhouse, J. (2016) Interim Technical Report - TIN 3.179: Development and Validation of Role-Related Gender-Free Physical Employment Standards for Ground Close Combat Roles, in the British Ministry of Defence – Phase 1. Defence Human Capability Science and Technology Centre; 2016 18 March 2016.

Rayson, M. P., Kingsnorth, A., Blacker, S. D., Esliger, D. W., Light, N., Cordell, N. J., Richmond, V. L., Knapik, J. J., Walker, E., Coakley, S., Dobbins, T. D., and Myers, S. D. (2016) TIN 3.200 Measurement of Leisure and Occupational Physical Activity Exposure - Phase 1. Defence Human Capability Science and Technology Centre; 31 March 2016. 

Rayson, M. P., and Blacker, S. D. (2016) National Ambulance Resilience Unit (NARU) Physical Competency Standards (PCS): Phase 1.  Outcome of 2-day Focus Group to Identify Physically Demanding Tasks in the HART, MTFA and CBRN roles 26-27 January 2016. Presentation to Ops Group; 13 April 2016.

Blacker, S. D., Myers, S. D., Coakley, S., Walker, E., and Hale, B. (2016) TIN 3.179: Development of Interim Infantry British Army Physical Selection Standards for (Recruits) (PSS(R)) for Men and Women. Defence Human Capability Science and Technology Centre; 2016 01 July 2016.  Contract No.: OS-DHCSTC_I398403_PT_T3_179/006.

Rayson, M. P., Blacker, S. D., Walker, E., Thompson, J., Gallagher, C., Doherty, J., and Myers, S. D. (2016) Development of Physical Competence Standards (PCS) for National Ambulance Resilience Unit (NARU) Special Operations: Phase 2 – Physical Demands Analysis. Mark Rayson Consulting & University of Chichester; 14 December 2016.

2015

Blacker, S. D., West, A. T., and Wilkinson, D. M. (2015) Developing an Aerobic Fitness Standard for Arqiva Climbers. University of Chichester; 4 November 2015. Report No.: UoC/15/02.

Wilkinson D.M., Blacker, S.D., Myers, S., Knapik J.J. (2014). Fitness for Complex Terrains; A Review of the Army Annual Fitness Test. Defence Human Capability Science & Technology Centre Report, 01 May 2015.

2014

Wilkinson D.M., Blacker, S.D., Rayson, M.P., Graveling, R., Crawford J., Knapik J.J. (2014). Health and Safety Analysis, Performance Measurement and Action Planning. Royal National Lifeboat Institution. v1 01 December 2014

Wilkinson, D. M., Willems, M. E., Myers, S., Blacker, S. D., Greenlees, I., & Hale, B. (2014). Physical and Cognitive Performance Following Long Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Defence Human Capability Science & Technology Centre Report, 01 February 2014. 

Journal reviewer for:

  • Applied Ergonomics
  • BMC Public Health
  • Ergonomics
  • European Journal of Applied Physiology
  • International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
  • Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
  • Military Medicine
  • Research Quarterly Exercise Sport
  • Sports Medicine
  • British Journal of Nutrition 
  • Journal of Military and Veterans and Health
  • Journal of Health, Safety and Environment

Journal Editorial Board

  • 2014-Present - Journal of Australian Strength and Conditioning (JASC) Tactical Section
  • 2013-Present - Sports Medicine Open

Research

 

Research Interests

Sam has research interests in the following areas:

  • Developing and implementing evidenced based physical employment standards and personnel selection procedures in physically demanding occupations
  • Evaluating physical training programmes and implementing remedial actions in physically demanding occupations
  • Improving health and safety and reducing injury at work
  • Evaluating dietary and hydration practices and setting evidenced based guidelines
  • Developing body-borne physiological monitors
  • The recovery and adaptation of skeletal muscle and connective tissue following exercise 

Research Supervision

Current PhD students

  • Mrs Matilda Spur - Nutrient provision and physical performance in female junior hockey players (Director of Studies)
  • Mr Ian Perkins - Examining Individual Variability in Response to New Zealand Blackcurrant Supplementation and the Effect upon Exercise Performance (Co-supervisor)
  • Miss Victoria Edwards - Gender Differences in the Physical Demands, Nutritional Requirements and Physical Adaptations during Military Training (Director of Studies)
  • Mr Steve Powell - Monitoring Physical Activity Exposure and Training Load during Military Training (Co-supervisor)
  • Miss Rianne Costello - Nutritional strategies to enhance the recovery of skeletal muscle and connective tissue following exercise to mitigate musculoskeletal injury risk during physical training (Director of Studies)
  • Mr Steve McGuire - Responses of men and women to physical training (Co-supervisor)

 Professional Supervision

British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences (BASES) Supervised Experience leading to professional accreditation

  • Supervisor for 3 completions
  • Currently supervising 4 candidates
  • External reviewer for 4 candidates
  • Research and Consultancy Income

Sam has experience in successfully delivering numerous grant and commercially funded projects, with a career income generation for research to date of over £3M.

Research is currently being conducted with the funding and/or the support of:

  • Ministry of Defence
  • National Ambulance Resilience Unit (NARU)

Memberships

  • British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences - Professional member (Accredited)
  • American College of Sports Medicine – Professional member
  • NATO Panel HFM-269 Combat Integration: Implications for Physical Employment Standards – UK Technical Team member and Secretary 

Journal Editorial Boards

2014-Present - Journal of Australian Strength and Conditioning (JASC) Tactical Section

2013-Present - Sports Medicine Open

Journal reviewer for:

Applied Ergonomics, BMC Public Health, Ergonomics, European Journal of Applied Physiology, International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion, Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Military Medicine, Research Quarterly Exercise Sport, Sports Medicine, British Journal of Nutrition, Journal of Military and Veterans and Health, Journal of Health, Safety and Environment, PLOS ONE, Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism, BMC Pediatrics, Sports Medicine Open. 

Consultancy

Delivered through Optimal Performance Limited (2001 - 2013), unless stated.

British Army

  • Setting new physical selection standards for Standard & Junior Entry Recruits, Territorial Army Recruits and Officers
  • Investigating the physical demands (i.e. cardiovascular strain, energy expenditure, physical activity, thermal strain) during Standard Entry, Infantry and Officer training courses
  • Developing non-invasive physiological monitoring technology
  • Examining the physiological limitations to performance in hot environments (including Kenya & Australia)
  • Providing physiological monitoring for participant safety during equipment trials
  • Reviewing the physical characteristics for predicting first time pass during military training
  • Quantifying risk factors for injury during initial training and pre-deployment training
  • Fitness for Complex Terrain - A review of the validity of the British Army Annual Fitness Test (University of Chichester)

Royal Air Force

  • Developing pre-deployment operational fitness tests
  • Quantifying the physical demands of recruit basic training in relation to pelvic stress fracture incidence

Royal Navy

  • Working with the Institute of Naval Medicine to investigate the physiological strain of load carriage experienced by Royal Marines during basic training (delivered through the University of Chichester)

Fire & Rescue Service

  • Investigations of  novel physiological monitoring techniques to measure core body temperature
  • Physiological assessment of Firefighters performing civil resilience scenarios and live firefighting in the built environment
  • Setting evidenced based hydration guidelines for Firefighters when wearing Chemical Biological Radiological Nuclear (CBRN) personal protective equipment (PPE)
  • Assessing strategies to combat heat strain after emergency service activities

UK Police Service

  • Assessing the physiological and ergonomic demands experienced by Officers performing tasks wearing CBRN PPE
  • Setting evidenced based hydration guidelines for Officers when wearing CBRN PPE

Department of Health

  • Developing an evidence base for standard operating procedures for Department of Health Personnel working in CBRN PPE
  • Setting evidenced based hydration guidelines for Department of Health personnel when wearing CBRN PPE

Royal National Lifeboat Institution

  • Investigating the Evidence Base for Retirement Age for Lifeboat Crew
  • Health and Safety Analysis, Performance Measurement and Action Planning (University of Chichester)

United Arab Emirates (UAE) Armed Forces

  • A series of audits conducted over four years  to establish the physical demands of training and provide an evidence base to target interventions to enhance health, fitness and nutrition during Junior and Senior Army, Air Force, Navy and Combined Basic Training courses.
  • Working at a Health and Sports Medicine Centre to provide evidenced based interventions to health, fitness and nutrition of adolescents

Malaysian Armed Forces

  • Assessing the health, fitness of cadets and the provision of nutrition and physical training at the National Defence University of Malaysia (NDUM)

Defence Sciences and Technology Laboratory (DSTL) (University of Chichester)

  • A systematic review and meta-analysis of physical and cognitive performance following long chain omega-3 fatty acid supplementation

2015

Blacker S.D. (2015) Developing physical employment standards for physically demanding occupations. The Royal Society of Medicine (Occupational Medicine Section Meeting), May 2015, London, UK.

Blacker S.D. Wilkinson D.M. (2015) National Firefighter Selection Process: Development and Validation of National Firefighter Selection Tests: Physical Tests. The Joint Working Group on Firefighter Fitness, March 2015, London, UK.

2014 

Blacker S.D. & Wilkinson D.M. (2014) The lessons learned in “battle”: what can we learn from applied scientific support of service personnel? The English Institute of Sports Annual Conference, December 2014, Hinkley, UK.

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