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Dr Sam Blacker

Reader in Exercise Physiology & Nutrition

s.blacker@chi.ac.uk | +44 (0) 1243 793473

Sam is a Reader in Exercise Physiology & Nutrition and co-leads the Occupational Performance Research Group.  He joined the University of Chichester in 2013 after having spent the majority of the previous 12 years working for Optimal Performance Limited, a company specialising in delivering research and consultancy to enhance performance, improve health and reduce injury in physically demanding occupations. He has been the principal investigator for numerous research projects based in the United Kingdom and overseas, including for organisations such the Ministry of Defence, Department of Health, UK Fire and Rescue Service, UK Police Force, Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI), Defence Sciences and Technology Laboratory (Dstl).

Sam is the programme coordinator for the MSc in Applied Sport and Exercise Nutrition. He supervises undergraduate and postgraduate research projects and is currently supervising six PhD students. Sam has active research collaborations with colleagues at other Universities, Industry and National Governing Bodies in the UK and overseas and coordinates a number of large research projects funded by UK Ministry of Defence and UK Emergency Services.

Sam is a British Association of Sports and Exercise Sciences (BASES) Accredited Sports and Exercise Scientist, holds Chartered Scientist (CSci) status and is the BASES Laboratory Director for the University of Chichester Sport & Exercise Science Laboratories.

Professional

Education:

2006 – 2009    University of Southampton. Doctor of Philosophy (Exercise Physiology)

1999 – 2003    University of Brighton. B.Sc. (First Class Hons) (Sandwich) Biological Sciences

Teaching:

  • Programme coordinator: MSc in Applied Sport and Exercise Nutrition
  • Key Module delivery: Professional Skills in Exercise Physiology and Nutrition (Level 7)
  • Key Module delivery: Work Placement in Sport and Exercise Nutrition (Level 7)

Administration:

  • Co-lead for the Occupational Performance Group (OPRG) with management responsibilities for nine full time researchers (six post-doctoral Research Fellows and four post-graduate Research Assistants) and six full-time PhD students (all on full bursaries) and the management of delivery of a series of externally funded research projects (See successful income generation section for full details)
  • Programme co-ordinator for MSc Applied Sport & Exercise Nutrition
  • University

University Committees/ Responsibilities:

  • Research & Innovation Committee Meeting
  • British Association of Sports and Exercise Sciences (BASES) Laboratory Director for the University of Chichester Sport & Exercise Science Laboratories

Professional activities, roles and memberships:

  • Secretary – North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) panel for Combat Integration: Implications for Physical Employment Standards
  • Conference Committee for International Physical Employment Standards Conference
  • Scientific Committee for International Congress on Soldier Physical Performance
  • Guest Editor Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
  • Editorial Board - Journal of Australian Strength and Conditioning (JASC) Tactical Section (2014-Present)
  • Editorial Board - Sports Medicine Open (2013-Present)

Publications

2019

Siddall, A.G. Powell, S.D. Needham-Beck, S.C. Edwards, V.C. Thompson J.E.S. Singh, P.A. Orford, E.R. Venables, M.C. Jackson, S. Greeves, J.P. Blacker, S.D. Myers, S.D. Validity of energy expenditure estimation methods during 10 days of military training. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 29(9): 1313-1321.

Rue C.A., Rayson M. P., Walker E. F., Doherty J., Thompson J., Myers S.D. and Blacker S.D. A Job Task Analysis to Describe the Physical Demands of Specialist Paramedic Roles in the National Ambulance Resilience Unit (NARU). Work, 63(4): 547-557.

Milligan, G., Blacker, S.D., Brown, P.E.H., Siddall A.(2019). Editorial - The Third International Conference on Physical Employment Standards, Work 63 (4), 479-480.

2018

Coakley, S.L., Myers, S.D. Walker E.F. Hale, B, Jackson, S. Greeves, J.P. Roberts, R. Blacker, S.D. (2019). 1.5 mile run time and body mass predict 8 mile loaded march performance, irrespective of sex. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport

2017

Willems, M.E.T., Dos Santos Silva, J., Cook, M.D. Blacker, S.D. (2017) Beneficial effects on fasting insulin and postprandial responses through 7-day intake of New Zealand blackcurrant powder. Functional Foods in Health & Disease, 7(7)

2016

Willems, M.E.T., Cousins, L., Williams, D. Blacker, S.D. (2016) Beneficial Effects of New Zealand Blackcurrant Extract on Maximal Sprint Speed during the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test. Sports, 4 (3). Journal Impact Factor 2015: 0.0; Web of Science citations: 0; GS citations: 1; Altmetric score: 7

Faghy, M., Blacker, S.D., Brown, P.I. (2016) Effects of load mass carried in a backpack upon respiratory muscle fatigue. European Journal of Sport Science, 16 (8). pp. 1032-1038. Journal Impact Factor 2015: 1.7; Web of Science citations: 0; GS citations: 0; Altmetric score: -

Blacker, S.D., Rayson, M.P. Wilkinson, D.M., Carter, J.C., Nevill, A. Richmond, V.L. (2016) Development of Physical Selection and Criterion Performance Tests for UK Fire and Rescue Service Personnel. Occupational Medicine, 66(1): 38-45. Journal Impact Factor 2015: 1.128; Web of Science citations: 2; GS citations: 4; Altmetric score: 9

2015

Perkins, I.C., Vine, S.A., Blacker, S.D., Willems, M.E.T (2015). New Zealand Blackcurrant Extract Improves High-intensity Intermittent Running. International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism, 25(5): 487-93. Journal Impact Factor 2015: 2.4; Web of Science citations: 1; GS citations: 3; Altmetric score: -

Cook, M.D., Myers, S.D., Blacker, S.D., Willems, M.E.T. New Zealand Blackcurrant Extract Improves Cycling Performance and Fat Oxidation in Cyclists. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 115(11): 2357-65. Journal Impact Factor 2015: 2.3; Web of Science citations: 0; GS citations: 3; Altmetric score: 18

2014

Blacker, S.D., Wilkinson, D.M., Rayson, M.P., Richmond, V.L., (2014). The gender-neutral timed obstacle course: a valid test of police fitness? (Letter to the Editor). Occupational Medicine (London) 64: 391. Journal Impact Factor 2015: 1.128; Web of Science citations: 0; GS citations: 0; Altmetric score: 0

Wilkinson, D.M., Blacker, S.D., Richmond, V.L., Rayson, M.P., Bilzon, J.L. (2014). Relationship between the 2.4-km run and multistage shuttle run test performance in military personnel. Military Medicine, 179(2): 203-207. Journal Impact Factor 2015: 1.11; Web of Science citations: 2; GS citations: 3; Altmetric score: -

2013

Blacker S.D., Fallowfield .J.L. Bilzon J.L.J. Willems M.E. (2013) Neuromuscular impairment following backpack load carriage. Journal of Human Kinetics, 5 (37), 91-8. Journal Impact Factor 2015: 1.2; Web of Science citations: 0; GS citations: 1; Altmetric score: -

Richmond, V. L., Wilkinson, D. M., Blacker, S. D., Horner, F. E., Carter, J., Havenith, G. (2013). Insulated skin temperature as a measure of core body temperature for individuals wearing CBRN protective clothing. Physiological Measurement, 34(11), 1531-1543. Journal Impact Factor 2015: 1.576; Web of Science citations: 6; GS citations: 7; Altmetric score: -

Blacker S.D., Fallowfield J.L., Willems M.E. (2013). Intra- and interday reliability of voluntary and electrically stimulated isometric contractions of the quadriceps femoris. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology 23(4): 886-91. Journal Impact Factor 2015: 2.1; Web of Science citations: 4; GS citations: 7; Altmetric score: 1

Horner F.E., Bilzon J.L., Rayson M.P., Blacker S.D., Richmond V.L., Carter J.M., Wright A., Nevill A. (2012). Development of an accelerometer-based multivariate model to predict free-living energy expenditure in a large military cohort. Journal of Sports Sciences. 31(4): 354-60. Journal Impact Factor 2015: 2.6; Web of Science citations: 2; GS citations: 4; Altmetric score: -

Blacker S.D., Carter J.M., Wilkinson D.M., Richmond V.L., Rayson M.P., Peattie M. (2013). Physiological responses of Police Officers during job simulations wearing chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear personal protective equipment. Ergonomics. 56(1): 137-47. Journal Impact Factor 2015: 1.8; Web of Science citations: 7; GS citations: 8; Altmetric score: -

2012

Carter J.M., Loney T., Blacker S.D., Nicholson G.F. and Wilkinson D.M. (2012) Hydration status of Arabic adolescents and young men: measurement, evaluation, and a school-based initiative to improve drinking behaviour. International Journal of Sports Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism. 22(4): 257-66. Journal Impact Factor 2015: 2.4; Web of Science citations: 2; GS citations: 3; Altmetric score: -

Fallowfield J. L., Blacker S.D., Willems M.E., Davey T., Layden J. (2012) Neuromuscular and cardiovascular responses of Royal Marine recruits to load carriage in the field. Applied Ergonomics. 43(6): 1131-7. Journal Impact Factor 2015: 2.4; Web of Science citations: 9; GS citations: 11; Altmetric score: -

2011

Blacker S.D., Horner FL, Brown PI, Linnane D.M., Wilkinson D.M., Wright A, Bluck LJ, Rayson M.P. (2011). Health, Fitness and Responses to Military Training of Officer Cadets in a Gulf Cooperation Council Country. Military Medicine. 176(12): 1376-1381. Journal Impact Factor 2015: 1.1; Web of Science citations: 1; GS citations: 3; Altmetric score: -

Wilkinson D.M., Blacker S.D., Richmond V.L., Horner F.E., Rayson M.P., Spiess A., Knapik J. J. (2011). Injuries and injury risk factors among British Army infantry soldiers. Injury Prevention. 17(6): 381-7. Journal Impact Factor 2015: 1.7; Web of Science citations: 10; GS citations: 29; Altmetric score: 12

Blacker S.D., Williams N.C., Fallowfield .J.L., Willems M.E. (2011). The effect of a carbohydrate beverage on the physiological responses during prolonged load carriage. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 111(8): 1901-8. Journal Impact Factor 2015: 2.3; Web of Science citations: 5; GS citations: 7; Altmetric score: -

2010

Brown P.I., McLellan T.M., Linnane D.M., Wilkinson D.M., Richmond V.L. Horner F.E., Blacker S.D., Rayson M.P. (2010). Influence of hydration volume and ambient temperature on physiological responses while wearing CBRN protective clothing. Ergonomics. 53(12): 1484-1499. Journal Impact Factor 2015: 1.8; Web of Science citations: 4; GS citations: 4; Altmetric score: -

Blacker S.D., Fallowfield J.L., Bilzon J.L.J., Willems M.E. (2010). Neuromuscular function following prolonged load carriage on level and downhill gradients. Aviation Space Environmental Medicine. 81(8): 745-753. Journal Impact Factor 2015: 0.88; Web of Science citations: 12; GS citations: 32; Altmetric score: -

Blacker S.D., Williams N.C., Fallowfield .J.L., Bilzon .J.L.J., Willems M.E. (2010). Carbohydrate vs protein supplementation for recovery of neuromuscular function following prolonged load carriage. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 12(7:2). Journal Impact Factor 2015: 2.0; Web of Science citations: 5; GS citations: 12; Altmetric score: -

Blacker S.D., Fallowfield J.L., Bilzon J.L.J., Willems M.E. (2010). Within-day and between-days reproducibility of isokinetic parameters of knee, trunk and shoulder movements. Isokinetics and Exercise Science. 18: 45-55. Journal Impact Factor 2015: 0.4; Web of Science citations: 7; GS citations: 7; Altmetric score: -

2009

Blacker S.D., Fallowfield J.L., Bilzon J.L.J., Willems M.E. (2009). Physiological responses to load carriage during level and downhill treadmill walking. Medicina Sportiva. 13(2): 108-124. Journal Impact Factor 2015: 0.00; Web of Science citations: 0; GS citations: 14; Altmetric score: -

Blacker S.D., Wilkinson D.M., Rayson M.P. (2009). Gender differences in the physical demands of British Army recruit training. Military Medicine. 174(8): 811-816. Journal Impact Factor 2015: 1.1; Web of Science citations: 8; GS citations: 17; Altmetric score: -

2008

Richmond V.L., Rayson M.P., Wilkinson D.M., Carter J.M., Blacker S.D. (2008). Physical demands of firefighter search and rescue in ambient environmental conditions. Ergonomics. 51(7): 1023-1031. Journal Impact Factor 2015: 1.8; Web of Science citations: 15; GS citations: 37; Altmetric score: -

Richmond V.L., Rayson M.P., Wilkinson D.M., Carter J.M., Blacker S.D., Nevill A., Ross J.D., Moore S. (2008). Development of an operational fitness test for the Royal Air Force. Ergonomics. 51(6): 935-946. Journal Impact Factor 2015: 1.8; Web of Science citations: 6; GS citations: 9; Altmetric score: -

Blacker S.D., Wilkinson D.M., Bilzon J.L.J., Rayson M.P. (2008) Risk factors for training injuries among British Army recruits. Military Medicine. 173(3): 278-286. Journal Impact Factor 2015: 1.1; Web of Science citations: 23; GS citations: 44; Altmetric score: -

Wilkinson D.M., Carter J.M., Richmond V.L., Blacker S.D., Rayson M.P. (2008). The effect of cool water ingestion on gastrointestinal pill temperature. Medicine and Science in Sports Exercise. 40(3): 523-528. Journal Impact Factor 2015: 4.1; Web of Science citations: 69; GS citations: 109; Altmetric score: -

Carter J.M., Wilkinson D.M., Blacker S.D., Rayson M.P., Bilzon J.L.J, Izard R.M., Coward A, Wright A., Nevill A., Rennie K., McCaffrey T. and Livingston B. (2008). An investigation of a novel three-dimensional accelerometer to predict free-living energy expenditure. Journal of Sports Sciences. 26(6): 553-561. Journal Impact Factor 2015: 2.6; Web of Science citations: 13; GS citations: 25; Altmetric score: -

2007

Richmond V., Wilkinson D., Carter J., Blacker S., Rayson M. (2007) Validity of the 3dNX (TM) triaxial accelerometer for predicting oxygen uptake. Contemporary Ergonomics, 531-536. Journal Impact Factor 2015: - ; Web of Science citations: 0; GS citations: 0; Altmetric score: -

Carter J.M., Rayson M.P., Wilkinson D.M., Richmond V., Blacker S.  (2007) Strategies to combat heat strain during and after firefighting, Journal of Thermal Biology. 32(2): 109-116. Journal Impact Factor 2015: 1.6; Web of Science citations: 30; GS citations: 64; Altmetric score:

 

Conference Abstracts (80 total) Last 3 Years Only:

2019

Blacker SD, Siddall AG, Powell SD, Needham-Beck SC, Edwards VC, Thompson JES, Singh PA, Orford ER, Venables MC, Jackson S, Greeves JP, Myers SD. Equation to Estimate Total Energy Expenditure in Military Populations Using a Wrist-Worn Physical Activity Monitor. Presented at the 66th Annual meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, June 2019, Orlando, USA

Costello R, Myers SD, Willems MET, Myers F, Lewis NA, Blacker SD. Effect of New Zealand blackcurrant extract on recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage following half-marathon running. Presented at the 66th Annual meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, June 2019, Orlando, USA

McGuire SJ, Blacker SD, Lake J, Myers SD. Relationships between isometric and dynamic strength in recreationally active females. Presented at the 66th Annual meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, June 2019, Orlando, USA

2018

Edwards VC, Siddall AG, Needham-Beck SC, Powell, SD, Jackson S, Greeves JP, Wardle SL, Myers SD, Blacker SD Timing of Nutritional Intake around Physical Activity During Military Training, Presented at the International Sport and Exercise Nutrition Conference (ISENC), December 2018, Newcastle, UK.

Coakley, SL., Thwaites, J., Blacker, SD., Hillsdon, M., Siddall, A., Walker, EF., Lee, BJ., Rue, C., Vine, CAJ., Doherty, J., Flood, TR., Needham-Beck, SC., Edwards, V., Powell, S., Jackson, S., Greeves, JP., Langford, J., & Myers, SD. Investigation of the Use of Machine Learning Algorithms to Identify Military Load Carriage Activity. Presented at the Third International Physical Employment Standards (PES) Conference, July 2018, Portsmouth, UK.

Doherty, J., Blacker, SD., Walker, EF., Coakley, SL., Vine, CAJ., Rue, CA., Floor, TR., Rayson, MP., Knapik, JJ., Gebhardt, D., Nindl, B., Brown, PEH., Jackson, S., Greeves, JP., & Myers, SD. The Development of a Vehicle Casualty Extraction Representative Military Task for the British Army Ground Close Combat Physical Employment Standards. Presented at the Third International Physical Employment Standards (PES) Conference, July 2018, Portsmouth, UK.

Rue, CA., Myers, SD., Walker, EF., Coakley, SL., Lee, BJ., Vine, CAJ., Doherty, J., Flood, TR., Rayson, MP., Knapik, JJ., Gebhardt, D., Nindl, B., Brown, PEH., Jackson, S., Greeves, JP., & Blacker, SD. The Development of a Repeated Lift and Carry (RLC) Representative Military Task (RMT) for the UK Armed Forces Ground Close Combat Physical Employment Standards. Presented at the Third International Physical Employment Standards (PES) Conference, July 2018, Portsmouth, UK.

Vine, CAJ., Rue, CA., Walker, EF., Coakley, SL., Lee, BJ., Doherty, J., Flood, TR., Rayson, MP., Knapik, JJ., Gebhardt, D., Nindl, B., Brown, PEH., Jackson, S., Greeves, JP., & Blacker, SD. Development of a Swimming Representative Military Task for the Royal Marine Commandos Physical Employment Standards. Presented at the Third International Physical Employment Standards (PES) Conference, July 2018, Portsmouth, UK.

Lee, BJ., Vine, CAJ., Rue, CA., Walker, EF., Coakley, SL., Doherty, J., Flood, TR., Rayson, MP., Knapik, JJ., Gebhardt, D., Nindl, B., Brown, PEH., Jackson, S., Greeves, JP., Myers, SD & Blacker, SD. . Presented at the Third International Physical Employment Standards (PES) Conference, July 2018, Portsmouth, UK.

Needham-Beck, SC., Blacker, SD., Jackson, S., Greeves, J.P., & Myers, SD. A Preliminary Job Task Analysis of the Physical Demands of Non-Ground Close Combat Roles in the British Army. Presented at the Third International Physical Employment Standards (PES) Conference, July 2018, Portsmouth, UK.

Edwards VC, Siddall AG, Needham-Beck, SC, Powell SD,, Jackson S, Greeves JP, Wardle, SL., Myers, SD., Blacker SD. Timing of Nutritional Intake around Physical Activity During Military Training. Presented at the Third International Physical Employment Standards (PES) Conference, July 2018, Portsmouth, UK.

Walker, EF., Rayson, MP., Carla Gallagher., Siddall. A., Thompson, J., Flood, TR., Doherty, J., Myers, SD., Blacker, SD. Development of a Physical Competency Standard for the National Ambulance Resilience Unit. Presented at the Third International Physical Employment Standards (PES) Conference, July 2018, Portsmouth, UK.

Blacker S.D., Rayson M.P., Walker E., Rue C., Thompson J.E.S., Doherty J., Myers S.D. An Analysis of the Physical Demands of National Ambulance Resilience Unit (NARU) Roles. Presented at the 65th Annual meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, June 2018, Minneapolis, USA

Edwards V.C., Myers S.D., Siddall A.G., Thompson J.E.S., Powel S.D., Jackson S., Greeves J.P, Wardle S.L., Blacker S.D. Timing of Energy and Macronutrient Intake of British Army Officer Cadets during Military Training. Presented at the 65th Annual meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, June 2018, Minneapolis, USA

Needham-Beck S.C., Siddall A.G., Thompson J.E.S., Powell S.D., Edwards V.C., Blacker S.D., Jackson S., Greeves J.P., Myers S.D. Comparison of Training Intensity, Energy Balance, and Sleep Duration in British Army Officer Cadets between Base and Field Exercise. Presented at the 65th Annual meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, June 2018, Minneapolis, USA

Powell S.D., Siddall A.G., Thompson J.E.S., Edwards V.C., Jackson S., Greeves J.P., Wardle S., Blacker S.D., Myers S.D. Comparison of daily energy expenditure and weekly physical activity exposure estimated using consumer and research-grade physical activity monitors during Officer Cadet initial military training. Presented at the 65th Annual meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, June 2018, Minneapolis, USA

Siddall A.G., Thompson J.E.S., Powell S.D, Edwards V.C., Kefyalew S.S., Singh P.A., Orford E.R., Venables M.C., Jackson S., Greeves J.P., Blacker S.D., Myers S.D. Comparison of research- and consumer-grade energy expenditure estimation methods during 10 days of military training. Presented at the 65th Annual meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, June 2018, Minneapolis, USA

Vine C.A.J, Coakley S.L., Myers S.D., Walker E.F., Rue C.A., Lee B.J., Flood T.R., Doherty J., Hale B., Rayson M.P., Knapik J.J., Gebhardt D., Nindl B.C., Brown P.E.H., Jackson S., Greeves J.P., Blacker S.D. Presented at the 65th Annual meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, June 2018, Minneapolis, USA

Willems M.E.T, Berendsen T., Şahin M.A., Myers S.D., Blacker S.D., Cook M.D. Effect of New Zealand blackcurrant extract on substrate oxidation and cycling performance in normobaric hypoxia. Presented at the 65th Annual meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, June 2018, Minneapolis, USA

2017

Blacker S.D. A review of the literature on the effect of load carriage on exercise induced muscle damage and potential links to musculoskeletal injury risk mitigation. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 20, S4. Presented at the International Conference on Soldier Physical Performance (ICSPP). Melbourne, Australia. December 2017.

Blacker S.D. Physical employment standards developed for the Armed Forces–A summary of the international status. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 20, S8. Presented at the International Conference on Soldier Physical Performance (ICSPP). Melbourne, Australia. December 2017.

Coakley S.L., Myers S.D., Walker E., Hale B., Knapik J.J., Jackson S., Greeves J.P. and Blacker S.D. (2017) Poster: The Application of a Mathematical Model to Estimate the Aerobic Capacity Required to Complete an 8-mile Loaded March from an Individual’s Body Mass. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 20, S66. Presented at the International Conference on Soldier Physical Performance (ICSPP). Melbourne, Australia. December 2017.

Doherty J., Blacker S.D., Walker E.F., Coakley S.L., Lee B.J., Vine C.A.J., Rue C.A., Flood T.R., Rayson M.P., Knapik J.J., Gebhardt D., Nindl B., Brown P.E.H., Jackson S., Greeves J.P. and Myers S.D. (2017) A Job Task Analysis of a Parachuting Training Exercise Conducted by the British Army Parachute Regiment. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 20, S66 Presented at the International Conference on Soldier Physical Performance (ICSPP). Melbourne, Australia. December 2017.

Flood T.R., Myers S.D., Walker E., Coakley S.L., Rue C.A., Lee B.L., Vine C.A.J., Doherty J., Rayson M.P., Knapik J.J., Gebhardt D., Nindl B.C., Brown P.E.H., Jackson S., Greeves J.P. and Blacker S.D. (2017) A Job Task Analysis of Casualty Drag Tasks Performed by the Ground Close Combat Roles in the UK Armed Forces. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 20, S155. Presented at the International Conference on Soldier Physical Performance (ICSPP). Melbourne, Australia. December 2017.

Lee B., Myers S.D., Walker E., Coakley S.L., Rue C.A., Flood T.R., Doherty J., Vine C.A.J., Rayson M.P., Knapik J.J., Gebhardt D., Nindl B.C., Brown P.E.H., Jackson S., Greeves J.P. and Blacker S.D. (2017) A Job Task Analysis of Digging Tasks Conducted by the Ground Close Combat (GCC) Roles in the UK Armed Forces. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 20, S66. Presented at the International Conference on Soldier Physical Performance (ICSPP). Melbourne, Australia. December 2017.

Rue C.A., Myers S.D., Walker E.F., Coakley S.L., Lee B.L., Vine C.A.J., Doherty J., Flood T.R., Rayson M.P., Knapik J.J., Gebhardt D., Nindl B.C., Brown P.E.H., Jackson S., Greeves J.P. and Blacker S.D. (2017) A Job Task Analysis of Casualty Evacuation by Stretcher Tasks Performed by the Ground Close Combat Roles in the UK Armed Forces. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 20, S64. Presented at the International Conference on Soldier Physical Performance (ICSPP). Melbourne, Australia. December 2017.

Vine C.A.J., Myers S.D., Walker E., Coakley S.L., Rue C.A., Flood T.R., Doherty J., Rayson M.P., Knapik J.J., Gebhardt D., Nindl B.C., Brown P.E.H., Jackson S., Greeves J.P. and Blacker S.D. (2017). A Job Task Analysis to Quantify the Physical Demands of Load Carriage Tasks Conducted by the Ground Close Combat (GCC) Roles in the UK Armed Forces. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 20, S64-65. Presented at the International Conference on Soldier Physical Performance (ICSPP). Melbourne, Australia. December 2017.

Walker E., Doherty J., Vine C.A.J., Coakley S.L., Rue C.A., Lee B.J., Flood T.R., Blacker S.D., Rayson M.P., Knapik J.J., Gebhardt D., Nindl B.C., Brown P.E.H., Jackson S., Greeves J.P. and Myers S.D. (2017). Poster: Physical Demands of a Boarding Operations Training Exercise Conducted by the Royal Marines. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 20, S114. Presented at the International Conference on Soldier Physical Performance (ICSPP). Melbourne, Australia. December 2017.

Siddall A., Thompson J.E.S, Powell S.D., Edwards V.E., Blacker S.D., Jackson S., Greeves J.P., Myers S.D Estimation of military training demand from a wrist-worn activity monitor and the potential impact of activity level on improvement of aerobic fitness. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 25, S114. Presented at the International Conference on Soldier Physical Performance (ICSPP). Melbourne, Australia. December 2017.

Rayson M.P., Blacker, S.D., Walker E. F., Thompson, J., Gallagher, C., Doherty J., Myers, S.D.

Thermal strain during job-related tasks conducted by the National Ambulance Resilience Unit. Presented at the The 17th International Conference on Environmental Ergonomics, Kobe, Japan. November 2017.

Blacker S.D., Coakley S.L., Walker, E., Hale, B, Jackson S. Greeves J.P., Roberts R. Myers S.D. (2017). Gender differences in British Army Infantry Representative Military Task Performance. Presented at the 64th Annual meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, June 2017, Denver, USA

Gallagher C., Rayson M.P., Walker E., Thompson J.E.S., Doherty J., Myers S.D., Blacker S.D. (2017). The physiological responses of specialist-role paramedics treating casualties in a simulated firearms incident. Presented at the 64th Annual meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, June 2017, Denver, USA

Doherty J., Rayson M.P., Walker E., Thompson J.E.S., Gallagher C., Myers S.D., Blacker S.D. (2017). The physiological responses of specialist-role paramedics undertaking a casualty decontamination scenario. Presented at the 64th Annual meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, June 2017, Denver, USA

Thompson J.E.S., Rayson M.P., Walker E., Gallagher C., Doherty J., Myers S.D., Blacker S.D. (2017). The physiological responses of specialist-role paramedics undertaking a simulation treating casualties exposed to hazardous materials. Presented at the 64th Annual meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, June 2017, Denver, USA

Coakley, S.L. Myers, S.D. Walker, E.  Nevola, V.R. Hale, B. Jackson, S. Greeves J.P. Roberts, R. and Blacker, S.D. (2017). A statistical model to predict 12.8 km Loaded March performance to an Infantry standard for male and female British Army. Personnel. Presented at the 64th Annual meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, June 2017, Denver, USA

Walker, E. Blacker, S.D. Rayson, M.P. Coakley, S.L. Knapik, J.J. (FACSM). Gebhardt, D. (FACSM), Hale, B. Brown, P.I. Jackson, S. Greeves J.P. Myers, S.D. (2017). Identification and Verification of Critical Physically Demanding Tasks Undertaken by Royal Marines. Presented at the 64th Annual meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, June 2017, Denver, USA

Willems M.E.T., Julianne Doherty J., Blacker S.D. (2017). No Adverse Effects of Matcha Green Tea Powder on Metabolic and Physiological Responses during Running (2017) Presented at the 64th Annual meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, June 2017, Denver, USA

Research

Research Interests:

Sam undertakes research and consultancy to monitor and improve health and performance in physically demanding occupations. He is a Reader and co-lead of the Occupational Performance Research Group at the University of Chichester and is a British Association of Sports and Exercise Sciences Accredited Physiologist and Chartered Scientist. Sam possesses particular research interests in, Physical Employment Standard (PES), wearable sensors, exercise nutrition, neuromuscular function,  the metabolic and thermal responses to exercise and occupational health and performance. Sam has provided research and support to the Royal Navy, British Army, Royal Air Force, UK Emergency Services, industry and overseas government organisations.  Sam has led numerous studies investigating risk factors for injury and physical demands during military training, development of physical employment selection standards and quantifying the physiological responses of military and emergency personnel during training scenarios. He is currently the principal investigator and technical lead for the numerous projects to enhance performance and mitigate injury risk in physically demanding occupations.

Experience of research supervision:

Completion

  • 2016 – 2020 - James Treweek – Development of Physical Employment Standards for the Royal Air Force Regiment (Co-supervisor)

Ongoing

  • 2013 – Present (Part Time) - Matilda Spur - Nutrient provision and physical performance in female junior hockey players (Director of Studies)
  • 2015 – Present (Part Time) - Ian Perkins - Examining Individual Variability in Response to New Zealand Blackcurrant Supplementation and the Effect upon Exercise Performance (Co-supervisor)
  • 2017 - Present - Victoria Edwards - Gender Differences in the Physical Demands, Nutritional Requirements and Physical Adaptations during Military Training (Director of Studies)
  • 2017 - Present - Steve Powell - Monitoring Physical Activity Exposure and Training Load during Military Training (Co-supervisor)
  • 2017 - Present - Rianne Costello - Nutritional strategies to enhance the recovery of skeletal muscle and connective tissue following exercise to mitigate musculoskeletal injury risk during physical training (Director of Studies)
  • 2017 - Present - Steve McGuire - Responses of men and women to physical training (Co-supervisor)
  • 2017 – Present – Stefano Montanari - Optimising supplementation strategy of New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC) extract on metabolic, physiological and performance responses in trained cyclists (Co-supervisor)
  • 2018 - Present – Tessa Food - The influence of menstrual cycle phase on mediators of heat illness and exercise performance during acute exposure to the heat (Director of Studies)
  • 2018 - Present – Christopher Vine - Development of a Novel Military Specific Treadmill Protocol to Examine Physical and Cognitive Performance in a Range of Environmental Conditions (Co-supervisor) 

Research Examinations: 

2019

PhD Examination for Thor Anders Kilen (University of Copenhagen, UK). Thesis title ‘Effect of Training Frequency as Several Shorter Training Sessions Compared to Less Frequent but Longer Training Sessions in a Military Population’

PhD Examination for Alexander MacQuarrie (Charles Sturt University, UK). Thesis title ‘Context and Correlates of Paramedic Health Status and Job Performance’

2018

PhD Examination for Emily Watkins (University of Brighton, UK). Thesis title ‘Physiological and Inflammatory Responses to UK Fire Service Instructors’ Working Practices’

PhD Examination for Philip Turner (University of Bath, UK). Thesis title ‘Determinants of Health and Wellbeing Among Fire and Rescue Service Personnel’

PhD Examination for Cara Walker (Deakin University, Australia). Thesis title ‘Design and Development of a Physical Readiness Test for Tanker-Based Firefighters’

2017

PhD Examination for Richard Stevenson (University of Bath, UK). Thesis title ‘Establishing and Ensuring the Health, Fitness and Operational Performance of UK Fire & Rescue Service Personnel’

PhD Examination for James Scales (Canterbury Christ Church University, UK). Thesis title ‘Physiological and Biomechanical Analysis of Prolonged and Repeated Bouts of Load            Carriage’

Master of Science (Research) Thesis Examination for Sarah Carter (Charles Darwin University, Australia): Perceived Heat Stress Symptoms, Impact and Mitigation Strategies Among Workers in The Monsoonal North. 

2016

Masters of Philosophy Thesis Examination for Benjamin Lee-Bates (University of Wollongong, Australia) Thesis title ‘Investigating the Efficacy of Different Methodological Approaches in the Development of Scientifically Valid Physical Employment Standards’

Master of Science (Research) Thesis Examination for Pete John Orchard (University of Wollongong, Australia): The Development of Physical Performance In New Recruits Entering Basic Military Training within the Australian Army. 

2014

PhD Examination Board Member for Ann-Sofie Lindberg (Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine Unit, Umea University, Sweden) Thesis title ‘Firefighters Physical Work Capacity’

Consultancy:

Consultancy (Selected highlights; see technical report list for full list):

British Army

  • A Physical Activity Capture and Evaluation System (PACES) to Inform Musculoskeletal Injury (MSKI) Prevention Strategies in Service Personnel (University of Chichester – Principal Investigator)
  • Sex differences in protein turnover and muscle function during a military field exercise. (University of Chichester)
  • Development of Physical Employment Standards (PES) for Non-Ground Close Combat (GCC) roles in the UK Armed Forces (University of Chichester – Principal Investigator)
  • Development of Physical Employment Standards (PES) for Ground Close Combat (GCC) roles in the UK Armed Forces (University of Chichester – Principal Investigator)
  • Development of Physical Employment Standards (PES) for all British Army roles (University of Chichester – Principal Investigator)
  • Measurement of leisure and occupational physical activity exposure during in UK Armed Forces personnel (University of Chichester – Principal Investigator)
  • Fitness for Complex Terrain – A review of the validity of the British Army Annual Fitness Test (University of Chichester)
  • Setting new physical selection standards for Standard & Junior Entry Recruits, Territorial Army Recruits and Officers (Optimal Performance Limited – Principal Investigator)
  • Investigating the physical demands (i.e. cardiovascular strain, energy expenditure, physical activity, thermal strain) during Standard Entry, Infantry and Officer training courses (Optimal Performance Limited)
  • Developing non-invasive physiological monitoring technology (Optimal Performance Limited)
  • Examining the physiological limitations to performance in hot environments (Optimal Performance Limited)
  • Providing physiological monitoring for participant safety during equipment trials (Optimal Performance Limited)
  • Reviewing the physical characteristics for predicting first time pass during military training (Optimal Performance Limited)
  • Quantifying risk factors for injury during initial training and pre-deployment training (Optimal Performance Limited)

Royal Air Force

  • Developing pre-deployment operational fitness tests (Optimal Performance Limited)
  • Quantifying the physical demands of recruit basic training in relation to pelvic stress fracture incidence (Optimal Performance Limited)

Royal Navy

  • Working with the Institute of Naval Medicine to investigate the physiological strain of load carriage experienced by Royal Marines during basic training (University of Chichester)

Defence Sciences and Technology Laboratory (DSTL)

  • A systematic review and meta-analysis of physical and cognitive performance following long chain omega-3 fatty acid supplementation (University of Chichester)

Fire & Rescue Service

  • Investigations of novel physiological monitoring techniques to measure core body temperature
  • Physiological assessment of Firefighters performing civil resilience scenarios and live firefighting in the built environment (Optimal Performance Limited)
  • Setting evidenced based hydration guidelines for Firefighters when wearing Chemical Biological Radiological Nuclear (CBRN) personal protective equipment (PPE) (Optimal Performance Limited)
  • Assessing strategies to combat heat strain after emergency service activities (Optimal Performance Limited)

UK Police Force

  • Assessing the physiological and ergonomic demands experienced by Officers performing tasks wearing CBRN PPE (Optimal Performance Limited)
  • Setting evidenced based hydration guidelines for Officers when wearing CBRN PPE (Optimal Performance Limited)
  • A review of an alternative fitness test for UK police officers (University of Chichester – Principal Investigator) 

Department of Health

  • Developing an evidence base for standard operating procedures for Department of Health Personnel working in CBRN PPE (Optimal Performance Limited)
  • Setting evidenced based hydration guidelines for Department of Health personnel when wearing CBRN PPE (Optimal Performance Limited)
  • Developing Physical Competency Standards (PCS) for National Ambulance Resilience Unit personnel – Phase 1 (University of Chichester – Principal Investigator)
  • Developing Physical Competency Standards (PCS) for National Ambulance Resilience Unit personnel – Phase 2 (University of Chichester – Principal Investigator)
  • Developing Physical Competency Standards (PCS) for National Ambulance Resilience Unit personnel – Phase 3 (University of Chichester – Principal Investigator)

Royal National Lifeboat Institution

  • Investigating the Evidence Base for Retirement Age for Lifeboat Crew (Optimal Performance Limited)
  • Health and Safety Analysis, Performance Measurement and Action Planning (University of Chichester)

United Arab Emirates (UAE) Armed Forces

  • A series of audits conducted over four years to establish the physical demands of training and provide an evidence base to target interventions to enhance health, fitness and nutrition during Junior and Senior Army, Air Force, Navy and Combined Basic Training courses (Optimal Performance Limited – Principal Investigator)
  • Working at a Health and Sports Medicine Centre to provide evidenced based interventions to health, fitness and nutrition of adolescents (Optimal Performance Limited)

Malaysian Armed Forces

  • Assessing the health, fitness of cadets and the provision of nutrition and physical training at the National Defence University of Malaysia (NDUM) (Optimal Performance Limited)

UK Industry

  • Evaluation of thermal strain of Nuclear Power station workers (Optimal Performance Limited)
  • Evaluation of thermal strain of construction workers at Ardagh Glass factory (Optimal Performance Limited)
  • Developing an Aerobic Fitness Standard for Arqiva Climbers (University of Chichester – Principal Investigator)

 

ChiPrints Repository